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  5. 8 Different Types of Skin Blemishes on The Face And Its Treatments

Does your confidence go for a toss at the sight of a blemish? You are not alone. Many women experience low confidence due to these imperfections on the skin.

But the good news is that there are a lot of treatments available to manage blemishes.

A blemish is any type of spots, discoloration, mark or flaw on the skin.

Types Of Blemishes

  • Acne
  • Rash
  • Age spots
  • Birthmarks
  • Ingrown hair
  • Melasma
  • Cysts
  • Scars

1. Acne

ACNE

Acne (acne vulgaris) is caused when oil, bacteria and dirt block a hair follicle on your skin. The following are the different types of acne: [1]

A. Types Of Acne

  • Blackhead (or open comedone): A small blemish resulting from a blocked sebaceous (oil secreting) gland. The dark colouration is caused when sebum reacts with oxygen.
  • Whitehead (or closed comedone): A raised, round blemish with a white covering. This is also the result of a blocked sebaceous gland.
  • Pimple: An inflamed and painful blemish that is filled with pus.
  • Papule: It is an inflamed pimple without pus.
  • Pustule: When a whitehead or pimple increases in size and severity, it is known as a pustule.
  • Nodules: They are skin inflammation that occurs deeper in the skin.
  • Cysts: Cysts are the most severe forms of acne. They are huge, pus-filled and appear as red bumps on the skin.

B. Causes

  • Hormones
  • Stress
  • Certain medications
  • Poor hygiene
  • Wrong skin care products
  • Sun
  • Unhealthy Diet

C. Treatment

Topical agents like salicylic acid, azelaic acid and benzoyl peroxide [2] remove the dead skin cells that clog pores. Procedures like chemical peels, microdermabrasion, manual removal and laser treatments also help in treating acne.

2. Rash

RASH

Skin rash is characterized by a change in the skin color and texture. Following are the causes [3] for skin rash.

A. Causes

  • Hot and humid weather
  • Excess sun exposure
  • Food allergies
  • Dry skin
  • Insect bites
  • Medication effects
  • Fungal or bacterial skin infection

B. Treatment

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (advil) relieve the mild pain associated with rash. Do not use harsh and scented skincare products.

3. Age Spots

AGE SPOTS

Age spots, also called liver spots, commonly occur in people over the age of 40.

A. Causes

Exposure to sun leads to overactive skin pigment cells. This accelerates the production of melanin in certain areas of the skin, leaving harmless age spots.

B. Treatment

Bleaching agents containing hydroquinone can be used. [4]

4. Birth Marks

BIRTHMARKS

Birthmarks are abnormalities of the skin that are present when a baby is born. There are two types of birthmarks:

  • Vascular birthmarks are made up of blood vessels that haven't formed correctly.
  • Pigmented birthmarks are made of a cluster of pigment cells which cause color in skin.

They can be many different colors, from tan to brown, gray to black, or even blue. Moles can be birthmarks. [5]

A. Causes

The cause of birthmarks is unknown.

B. Treatment

Most birthmarks are harmless. Vascular birthmarks can be removed using laser surgery. [6]

5. Ingrown Hair

INGROWN HAIR

Ingrown hair (commonly referred to as hair bumps) often lead to large itchy bumps on the face.

A. Causes

Ingrown hairs can occur due to tweezing, waxing or shaving facial hair. [7] Curly hair is more likely to form into ingrown hairs. People with high levels of sex hormones can have excessive hair growth and are likely to get ingrown hairs post shaving.

B. Treatment

Ingrown hairs go away on their own. But if it is causing a problem or is infected, your doctor can make a small incision in your skin with a sterile needle to release it. Your doctor may also prescribe:

  • Steroid medicine as it can bring down the inflammation.
  • Retinoids as they remove dead skin cells and reduce skin pigment changes caused by ingrown hairs.
  • Oral antibiotics.

6. Melasma

MELASMA

Melasma is caused due to excess production of melanin (skin pigment). [8] It is characterized by dark patches on the skin.

A. Causes

  • Exposure to sun
  • Hormonal abnormalities
  • Birth control pills
  • Pregnancy

B. Treatment

Topical treatments for melasma include iron oxide, hydroquinone, azelaic acid, kojic acid, corticosteroids, etc. Oral treatments include tranexamic acid, polypodium, leucotomos and glutathione. Procedural treatments include laser, chemical peels and microneedling. [9]

7.Cysts

CYSTS

Cysts are bumps or sacs containing a substance like keratin. There are different types of cysts like epidermoid cysts, ganglion cysts and sebaceous cysts. [10]

A. Causes

  • Genetic conditions
  • Certain medications
  • Deformed ducts
  • A defect in the cells

B. Treatment

  • Excision
  • Laser surgery

After a cyst is removed, your doctor may give you an antibiotic ointment to prevent infection. The removal of a cyst may leave a scar which is usually treated with a topical cream.

8. Scars

SCARS

Facial scars are formed after a wound is healed. [11]

A. Causes

Facial scars are formed as a result of

  • Injuries
  • Acne
  • Burns
  • Surgery

B. Treatment

Treatments like dermabrasion, chemical peels, laser resurfacing and plastic surgery work well for facial scars. [12]

What Is The Difference Between Acne And Blemishes?

Acne is a skin concern characterized by pimples, blackheads and whiteheads. Blemish is a condition where the skin is decolorized. Acne and blemishes are not to be confused for the same kind of skin condition. But blemish can form as a result of acne.

When Should You See Your Doctor?

Make a visit to your doctor if your blemish

  • Changes in size or color
  • Begins to bleed

Are There Any Home Remedies For Blemishes?

People have been using a lot of home remedies to clear blemishes on face based on ancient science. Although these are not scientifically proven, they have yielded effective results.

1. Tomato Juice

Tomatoes are rich in Vitamin C and antioxidants. Their astringent properties clear blemishes.

2. Aloe Vera

Aloe Vera not only heals blemishes but also helps in the growth of new skin cells.

3. Egg White

Egg white contains natural enzymes that help in lightening the skin.

4. Honey

Honey has anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidants that lighten the scars.

5. Lemon Juice

Lemon juice is a natural bleaching agent that lightens scars and blemishes. Other natural ingredients that have the potential to fade away blemishes are cocoa butter, baking soda, apple cider vinegar, potato juice, neem, papaya, oatmeal mask, shea butter, yogurt mask and turmeric mask.

What Are The 5 Vital Steps to Avoid Blemishes?

1. Eat healthy

2. Get adequate sleep

3. Lead a stress-free life

4. Follow a skincare routine

5. Exercise to flush out toxins

What Is An Ideal Skincare Routine?

Following a skincare routine religiously not only keeps the blemishes away but also leads to healthy skin. No matter how many steps you want to incorporate in your skincare routine, make sure you don’t forget these basics.

A. Cleansing

Cleansing is the first and foremost step in any skincare routine. It helps get rid of dust, dirt, excess oils and makeup residue from your skin. Cleansing prepares your skin for the application of next set of skincare.

An ideal cleanser should be gentle and deep cleansing rather than over cleansing. Cleansing should make your face look clean without stripping off the natural oils and disrupting the pH balance of the skin.

B. Toning

Cleansing often disrupts the pH balance of your skin. A toner will bring it back to normal.

C. Moisturizing

Moisturizing is an important step if you aim to keep your skin healthy. Irrespective of the skin type, moisturizing is important. It offers hydration to the skin and also repairs the skin’s natural barrier.

Apply a broad spectrum sunscreen post moisturizing to protect your skin from the harsh sun rays.

D. Treating

If you are struggling with skin concerns like acne, tan, dark spots or premature aging, use a serum to address them. A serum should be applied soon after cleansing to reap the maximum benefits.

E. Exfoliating

Exfoliating means getting rid of dead skin cells. Exfoliate your skin once a week to wash away dead skin cells.

Before you begin a skincare routine for your skin, it is crucial to know about your skin and it's unique needs. Take SkinKraft’s SkinID™ questionnaire to get a FREE Skin Analysis and a customized skincare recommendation.

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